BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT SURVIVAL RATES AND REQUIREMENTS
Bone marrow is an important human body part present in the bones. Bone marrow is present in the core of bones. There are two types of bone marrows; red bone marrow and yellow bone marrow. The yellow bone marrow consist of fat cells, as you age this portion increases. Red bone marrow portion is the one in which blood cells are formed. It has cells called hematopoietic cells. These are responsible for the production of blood components. It produces red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Before birth, blood cells are produced by liver and spleen after the birth bone marrows takes this responsibility and makes blood cells. Any abnormality in the bone marrow results in cancer and grave bone problems. Bone marrow transplant is done to cure people. The details are given below.
Table of contents
- Bone Marrow Biopsy
- Bone Marrow Transplant
- Bone marrow transplant requirements
- Bone Marrow Transplant Survival rates
- Bone Marrow Cancer
Bone Marrow Biopsy
A bone marrow biopsy is done to extract a small portion of the solid bone marrow which then goes through a series of tests to determine whether the bone marrow is functioning properly or there is abnormality.
A biopsy is done when your blood test shows abnormal number of platelets, WBCs and RBCs.
A biopsy procedure takes 1 hour. The bone marrow extract is taken in 10 minutes. It is not painful. The patient is given anesthesia before and after the process.
Bone marrow biopsy is done to find out whether the patient has the following,
The sample is taken from the hip bone or chest bone. A small hole is made for a hollow needle to pass. This needle extracts the bone marrow sample.
You may feel a little pain but the doctor gives pain reliever medicines.
A bone marrow biopsy often doesn’t cause any complications. The following happen in rare cases,
- Abnormal reaction to anesthesia
- Constant pain in the part (bone marrow is extracted)
People think that this process is too painful but it does not hurt too much, the anesthesia and expert doctors lessen the pain to a large extent.
Bone Marrow transplant
A bone marrow transplant is done to cure some grave diseases. The cells from the donor are extracted and are introduced in the recipient’s body. Bone marrow transplant surgery is not necessary. Many modern tools have been introduced in the field of hematology. Bone marrow transplants are carried in different ways.
TYPES OF BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTS
There are three bone marrow transplants. These are classified on the basis of origin of cells extracted,
- Autologous bone marrow transplant
- Allogeneic bone marrow transplant
- Syngeneic bone marrow transplant
- The autologous bone marrow transplant is done by extracting the cells from the person himself. This transplant has least complications and there are more chances of the transplant being successful.
- Allogeneic bone marrow transplant is carried out by educing the cells from person’s family members or relatives.
- Syngeneic bone marrow transplant is done when the cells of recipient’s twin are taken. This also creates least complications.
- Blood cells can be extracted from the following,
The cells are educed from the persons and stored in cold containers.
BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT CURES
This transplant is done to cure some serious and dangerous diseases that cannot be cured just by doing chemotherapy or radiation.
- Blood cancer
- Defected bone marrow
Bone Marrow transplant donor
The person from which the bone marrow cells are extracted is known as a bone marrow donor. The donor is examined for sometimes and donor’s medical history is also checked. The transplant does not cause much pain but there are some side effects,
- Pain in bones and joints
- Muscle pain
Bone Marrow Procedure
The bone marrow transplant carried out in many different ways. It is not too much painful however as it is a transplant a patient may feel uncomfortable. In this transplant, a patient is given anesthesia. The place from where the blood stem cells are to be collected is injected with anesthesia. It is also applied on the skin. The patient has to go through chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
How do they extract Bone marrow?
The bone marrow or stem cells can be educed in liquid and solid form. The liquid bone marrow may be extracted from your blood and the solid sample is taken from hip bone.
- Central Venous Catheter
After a bone marrow transplant is carried out, there can be some problems. Sometimes the body gives severe reaction and doctors have to keep the patient in observation and he is medicated. Following are some of the problems caused after transplant,
- Graft versus host disease
- Internal bleeding
The bone marrow transplant has proved to be lifesaving for many patients. It is highly beneficial and stabilizes your health.
Bone Marrow Transplant Requirements
For a person to get bone marrow transplant there are some requirements.
The doctors have to check the patient’s early medical history. Other things that are required are,
The person should not have the following ailments or they should have been treated first,
- HIV AIDS
- Blood pressure
- Internal bleeding
- Respiratory illness
- Allergic reactions
- Autoimmune ailments
The factors that are important too are,
These 2 factors should be according to the doctor recommendation. As these can cause complications and the transplant patient may go through many problems. It is better to follow the doctor’s instructions.
Bone Marrow transplant survival rate
Before the concept of bone marrow transplant came, many patients died as there was no way to cure cancer. Bone marrow transplant was a huge success in the field of medicine. Many people were treated by using this method. The first successful bone marrow transplant was done in 1956 and the donor was twin of the recipient.
The estimated survival rate of Bone Marrow Transplant was estimated to be 62 % in 2012. This is the sole reason of many cancer patients alive today.
Bone Marrow Cancer
Bone marrow cancer is also known as Myeloma. It is a condition in which one of the plasma cells becomes cancerous and produces many copies of it. These cancerous cells accumulate in bone marrow. In bone marrow, plasma cells are dividing to form more cells. The cancerous cells can cause a lot of problems including not producing enough blood cells. These defaulted plasma cells produce large amount of Antibody known as Paraprotein. This causes damage to bones as well as the viscosity of blood is disturbed.
In this disease following symptoms appear,
Lytic damaged parts in bones
Pain in bones and joints
High level of calcium in blood
- This condition is known as hypercalcemia. The bone start breaking and more calcium is added into the blood. It causes following problems,
Damage to the kidney
Higher viscosity of blood
- Paraprotein antibody high concentration in blood
Compression of nerves
Bone marrow cancer or myeloma is diagnosed in patients by performing the following tests,
- Examination of blood and urine
- Sample check of bone marrow
- X-ray test of bones
It is treated by doing a bone marrow transplant or chemotherapy.
The bone marrow is soft inner core of bones and this method is used for curing many grave diseases. The diseases are cured only by doing a Bone marrow transplant that is a costly process. After the recovery process, patients again start to live a healthy life.